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Obesity related. Raises T2D risk through obesity.
Geno Mag Summary
(A;A) 3 obesity risk and 1.6x risk for T2D
(A;T) 2.4 1.3x risk for T2D; obesity risk
(T;T) 1.5 lower risk of obesity and Type-2 diabetes
ReferenceGRCh38 38.1/141
is asnp
is mentioned by
dbSNP (classic)rs9939609
1000 genomesrs9939609
GWAS Ctlgrs9939609
Max Magnitude3
? (A;A) (A;T) (T;T) 28

rs9939609 is a SNP in the fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene, aka the "Fat Gene" [1]. The original paper describing it is here [PMID 17434869OA-icon.png].

2015 research suggests rs1421085 may be the causal snp.

[2] The researchers identified 10 different FTO SNPs in the first intron of the gene that associated with both BMI and type-2 diabetes. Because they all correlated with each other, they chose to examine one of the SNPs (rs9939609) in detail.

rs9939609 has also been reported in a large study to be associated with type-2 diabetes. The risk allele (oriented to the dbSNP entry) is (A); the odds ratio associated with heterozygotes is 1.34 (CI 1.17-1.52), and for homozygotes, 1.55 (CI 1.3-1.84). [PMID 17554300OA-icon.png]

In a different study, this SNP was found in a linkage block in the FTO gene with rs1121980; see rs1121980 for the association of this block with early onset obesity since it showed the strongest association.[PMID 18159244OA-icon.png]

The increases in body mass index associated with rs9939609(A) carriers appears to begin at a young age and are maintained throughout adulthood, according to a study of 5,600+ Utah families.[PMID 18239580OA-icon.png]

This SNP did not show any association with obesity, type-2 diabetes or any other related traits in a study of 3,210 Chinese subjects. Furthermore, the minor allele frequency was much lower in Chinese populations compared to populations of European descent.[PMID 17959933]

  • Note: The three FTO SNPs, rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs9939609, are in strong linkage disequilibrium (pairwise r2>0.97), and there are two primary haplotypes, C-G-A (42.0 %) and T-T-T (55.5 %).

[PMID 18437351] 1,638 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,858 controls

  • rs9939609 in FTO (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25, p = 0.006)

[PMID 18583465] A study of 3,000+ UK children indicated that (A;A) genotypes were less satieted (i.e. had greater appetite) than other genotypes, indicating this risk allele for obesity is likely to influence appetite.

[PMID 18379722OA-icon.png] This SNP is also associated with (severe) obesity in a study of 927 Japanese patients.

[PMID 18948966] This SNP may contribute to variation in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels independently of obesity; average CRP levels may be 12-14% higher per rs9939609(A) allele.

[PMID 18719664] This SNP is also associated with adult obesity in Mexicans.

[PMID 19158205] A longitudinal study of Finnish children concluded that the effect of rs9939609 on BMI only becomes evident after age 7, and that the FTO gene is not directly associated with energy intake or physical activity.

[PMID 19214238OA-icon.png] Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar to smoking, but without a particular underlying disease pattern barring an increase in the risk of diseases of the nervous system.

[PMID 18787525OA-icon.png] Each copy of the risk-allele A at rs9939609 was significantly associated with 0.45 kg/m(2) increase in BMI (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.74; P = 0.004) and 0.97 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21-0.65; P = 0.0002). Similar results were observed for rs8050136. may confer a modest susceptibility to obesity in an ethnicity-specific manner, but may be unlikely to contribute to a clinically significant diabetes risk.

[PMID 28381478] A small study (less than 700 women, divided into 4+ groups) concluded that over 3 & 6 months women in a weight-loss program who were informed they carried at least one rs9939609 risk allele lost slightly more weight than non-carriers.

SNP rs9939609
PubMedID [PMID 17434869OA-icon.png]
Condition Body mass index
Gene FTO
Risk Allele A
pValue 2.00E-020
OR 0.36
95% CI NR) kg/m2 per copy in adult

[PMID 18839134OA-icon.png] Assessing gene-treatment interactions at the FTO and INSIG2 loci on obesity-related traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

[PMID 18855084] The FTO obesity gene. Genotyping and gene expression analysis in morbidly obese patients

[PMID 19265514OA-icon.png] FTO gene variation and measures of body mass in an African population

GWAS snp
PMID [PMID 19079261OA-icon.png]
Trait Body mass index
Title Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
Risk Allele A
P-val 4E-51
Odds Ratio 0.33 [0.27-0.39] kg/m2 increase
GWAS snp
PMID [PMID 19396169]
Trait Biomedical quantitative traits
Title A large-scale genome-wide association study of Asian populations uncovers genetic factors influencing eight quantitative traits
Risk Allele A
P-val 2E-7
Odds Ratio 0.24 [0.14-0.32] kg/m2 increase

[PMID 19322589OA-icon.png] Analysis of FTO gene variants with measures of obesity and glucose homeostasis in the IRAS Family Study


[PMID 19587359OA-icon.png] Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue


[PMID 19687793] Macronutrient-specific effect of FTO rs9939609 in response to a 10-week randomized hypo-energetic diet among obese Europeans

[PMID 19726594] Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity

[PMID 19793853] Postprandial responses in hunger and satiety are associated with the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism in FTO

[PMID 19828706OA-icon.png] The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating

[PMID 19859840] Association of the common rs9939609 variant of FTO gene with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

[PMID 20031593OA-icon.png] The FTO Gene Is Associated With an Atherogenic Lipid Profile and Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Study in Tayside Scotland (Go-DARTS) Study

[PMID 20051647] Association of the Common Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphism with Obesity in a Japanese Population

[PMID 20075932] Association of gene polymorphism of the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene with insulin resistance in Japanese

[PMID 20090391OA-icon.png] Effects of the FTO Gene on Lifestyle Intervention Studies in Children

[PMID 20092643OA-icon.png] Large effects on body mass index and insulin resistance of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) variants in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

[PMID 20181787] A Variant in the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene (FTO) and Variants near the Melanocortin-4 Receptor Gene (MC4R) Do Not Influence Dietary Intake

[PMID 20186840] A genetic variation in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene is associated with obesity and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population

[PMID 20337217] FTO polymorphisms are associated with obesity but not with diabetes in East Asian populations: a meta-analysis

[PMID 20377915OA-icon.png] FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African- American youth

[PMID 20400278] Association of the FTO gene variant (rs9939609) with cardiovascular disease in men with abnormal glucose metabolism - The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

[PMID 20467478OA-icon.png] The Common FTO Genetic Polymorphism rs9939609 is Associated with Increased BMI in Type 1 Diabetes but not with Diabetic Nephropathy

[PMID 20502638OA-icon.png] Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Is Differentially Associated with Variation in FTO in Whites and African-Americans in the ARIC Study

[PMID 20512162OA-icon.png] The obesity-associated SNPs in intron 1 of the FTO gene affect primary transcript levels

[PMID 20511725] No association of obesity gene FTO with body composition at the age of 6 months. The Generation R Study

[PMID 20650268] Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Korean

[PMID 20702506OA-icon.png] Life-Course Analysis of a Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Variant and Body Mass Index in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Using Structural Equation Modeling

[PMID 20811910] FTO influences on longitudinal BMI over childhood and adulthood and modulation on relationship between birth weight and longitudinal BMI

[PMID 20858286OA-icon.png] Variant rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index among Chinese children

[PMID 20948226] Gene Expression of FTO in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Adipocyte Cell Line

[PMID 20966902OA-icon.png] Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits and Evidence of Interactions With Age and Study Year in Filipino Women

[PMID 21134343] Variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and C-reactive protein levels in Chinese Han populations

[PMID 21186106OA-icon.png] Education modulates the association of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with body mass index and obesity risk in the Mediterranean population

[PMID 21246032OA-icon.png] Influences of the Common FTO rs9939609 Variant on Inflammatory Markers Throughout a Broad Range of Body Mass Index

[PMID 20057365] Meta-analysis added power to identify variants in FTO associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Asian population

GWAS snp
PMID [PMID 21102462OA-icon.png]
Title Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
Risk Allele A
P-val 3E-8
Odds Ratio 2.1000 [1.32-2.88] week decrease

[PMID 21318054OA-icon.png] variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and trunk obesity in adolescents.

[PMID 21411553] Associations between a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of the FTO Gene (rs9939609) and Obesity-Related Characteristics over Time during Puberty in a Dutch Children Cohort

[PMID 21443588] Association between the FTO gene and overweight in Japanese children and adolescents

[PMID 21637715OA-icon.png] Detailed Analysis of Variants in FTO in Association with Body Composition in a Cohort of 70-Year-Olds Suggests a Weakened Effect among Elderly

[PMID 21720422OA-icon.png] Differences in the Heritability of Growth and Growth Velocity During Infancy and Associations With FTO Variants

[PMID 21741858] The rs7204609 Polymorphism in the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene is Positively Associated With Central Obesity and Microalbuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes From Southern Brazil

[PMID 21796137] Association of variations in the FTO, SCG3 and MTMR9 genes with metabolic syndrome in a Japanese population

[PMID 21798115] Dietary fatty acid distribution modifies obesity risk linked to the rs9939609 polymorphism of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in a Spanish case-control study of children

[PMID 21818152OA-icon.png] Polymorphisms in the NPY2R Gene Show Significant Associations With BMI That Are Additive to FTO, MC4R, and NPFFR2 Gene Effects

[PMID 21842748] [The study of polymorphism rs9939609 FTO gene in patients with overweight and obesity]

[PMID 21913894] rs9939609 in the FTO Gene is Associated with Obesity but not with Several Biochemical Parameters in Sardinian Obese Children

[PMID 21868005] Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are related to glucose levels and higher lipid accumulation product in postmenopausal women from southern Brazil

[PMID 21986706OA-icon.png] The association of variants in the FTO gene with longitudinal body mass index profiles in non-Hispanic white children and adolescents

[PMID 21989907] Association of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with obesity in roma/gypsy population

[PMID 21673421] Genetic factors in risk assessment for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a small case series

[PMID 22030988] FTO Risk Haplotype Among Early Onset and Severe Obesity Cases in a Population of Western Spain

[PMID 22051089OA-icon.png] Associations of Obesity Genes with Obesity-related Outcomes in Multiethnic Children

[PMID 22069379OA-icon.png] Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

[PMID 22090522] PS2-41: The FTO Gene, Its Variants and Post-menopausal Breast Cancer

[PMID 22132335OA-icon.png] An Obesity-Related FTO Variant and the Risk of Preeclampsia in a Finnish Study Population

[PMID 22141579] FTO gene is related to obesity in Chilean Amerindian children and impairs HOMA-IR in prepubertal girls

[PMID 21749608] Genetic variants and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

[PMID 22189607] Associations of the FTO rs9939609 variant with discrete body fat depots and dietary intake in a multi-ethnic cohort

[PMID 22234326] Genome wide analysis reveals association of a FTO gene variant with epigenetic changes

[PMID 22391885] Variations in the obesity genes FTO, TMEM18 and NRXN3 influence the vulnerability of children to weight gain induced by short sleep duration

[PMID 22421923] Associations of variants in FTO and near MC4R with obesity traits in South Asian Indians

[PMID 22421893] Association Between FTO Variant and Change in Body Weight and Its Interaction With Dietary Factors: The DiOGenes Study

[PMID 22083549] Study of eight GWAS-identified common variants for association with obesity-related indices in Chinese children at puberty

[PMID 22791637] The association of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with obesity and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Polish children

[PMID 22797368] Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene ( FTO ) in Eating Disorders: Evidence for Association of the rs9939609 Obesity Risk Allele with Bulimia nervosa and Anorexia nervosa

[PMID 22454631OA-icon.png] Association of FTO polymorphisms with early age of obesity in obese Italian subjects

[PMID 22842737] Influences of FTO gene on onset age of adult overweight

[PMID 17658951OA-icon.png] Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

[PMID 17928949] FTO polymorphisms in oceanic populations.

[PMID 18048838] The common rs9939609 gene variant of the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene FTO is related to fat cell lipolysis.

[PMID 18162508] Association of CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, CDKN2A/B, HHEX, SLC30A8, and KCNJ11 with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

[PMID 18218107OA-icon.png] FTO gene SNPs associated with extreme obesity in cases, controls and extremely discordant sister pairs.

[PMID 18224312OA-icon.png] Pharmacogenetics: data, concepts and tools to improve drug discovery and drug treatment.

[PMID 18249188] Major gender difference in association of FTO gene variant among severely obese children with obesity and obesity related phenotypes.

[PMID 18252780] The association between the FTO gene and fat mass in humans develops by the postnatal age of two weeks.

[PMID 18256137OA-icon.png] Regulation of Fto/Ftm gene expression in mice and humans.

[PMID 18317470OA-icon.png] NYD-SP18 is associated with obesity in the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

[PMID 18325910OA-icon.png] Genome-wide association scans identified CTNNBL1 as a novel gene for obesity.

[PMID 18335027OA-icon.png] Association analysis of the FTO gene with obesity in children of Caucasian and African ancestry reveals a common tagging SNP.

[PMID 18339204OA-icon.png] Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample.

[PMID 18346983OA-icon.png] Common variation in the FTO gene alters diabetes-related metabolic traits to the extent expected given its effect on BMI.

[PMID 18426866OA-icon.png] Association of FTO with obesity-related traits in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) Cohort.

[PMID 18445669] Lack of association of fatness-related FTO gene variants with energy expenditure or physical activity.

[PMID 18454148OA-icon.png] Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.

[PMID 18469204OA-icon.png] Implication of genetic variants near TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, and FTO in type 2 diabetes and obesity in 6,719 Asians.

[PMID 18478198] Association of variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene with polycystic ovary syndrome.

[PMID 18487448OA-icon.png] Common variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene confers risk of obesity and modulates BMI in the Chinese population.

[PMID 18533027OA-icon.png] Worldwide population differentiation at disease-associated SNPs.

[PMID 18550552OA-icon.png] Lifetime body mass index and later atherosclerosis risk in young adults: examining causal links using Mendelian randomization in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.

[PMID 18598350OA-icon.png] Impact of nine common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms in Asian Indian Sikhs: PPARG2 (Pro12Ala), IGF2BP2, TCF7L2 and FTO variants confer a significant risk.

[PMID 18599522OA-icon.png] FTO variants are associated with obesity in the Chinese and Malay populations in Singapore.

[PMID 18616701] Variant rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with obesity in an adult population from Spain.

[PMID 18647953OA-icon.png] Fat mass-and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant is associated with obesity: longitudinal analyses in two cohort studies and functional test.

[PMID 18663371] Impact on weight dynamics and general growth of the common FTO rs9939609: a longitudinal Danish cohort study.

[PMID 18682847OA-icon.png] Non-replication of genome-wide based associations between common variants in INSIG2 and PFKP and obesity in studies of 18,014 Danes.

[PMID 18698412OA-icon.png] FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

[PMID 18799002OA-icon.png] 'Fat mass and obesity associated' gene (FTO): no significant association of variant rs9939609 with weight loss in a lifestyle intervention and lipid metabolism markers in German obese children and adolescents.

[PMID 18838977] The FTO gene and measured food intake in children.

[PMID 18842783OA-icon.png] The fat mass- and obesity-associated locus and dietary intake in children.

[PMID 18852197OA-icon.png] Metabolic and cardiovascular traits: an abundance of recently identified common genetic variants.

[PMID 18984658] Increased recovery rates of phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate after isometric contraction in oxidative muscle fibers and elevated hepatic insulin resistance in homozygous carriers of the A-allele of FTO rs9939609.

[PMID 19005641OA-icon.png] FTO gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asian Indians.

[PMID 19008344OA-icon.png] Association analysis of variation in/near FTO, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX, EXT2, IGF2BP2, LOC387761, and CDKN2B with type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in Pima Indians.

[PMID 19016587OA-icon.png] How does body fat influence bone mass in childhood? A Mendelian randomization approach.

[PMID 19030008] Replication of the association of common rs9939609 variant of FTO with increased BMI in an Australian adult twin population but no evidence for gene by environment (G x E) interaction.

[PMID 19056611OA-icon.png] Adiposity-related heterogeneity in patterns of type 2 diabetes susceptibility observed in genome-wide association data.

[PMID 19060910OA-icon.png] Genome-wide association analysis of metabolic traits in a birth cohort from a founder population.

[PMID 19073769OA-icon.png] Variants near MC4R are associated with obesity and influence obesity-related quantitative traits in a population of middle-aged people: studies of 14,940 Danes.

[PMID 19073975] An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children.

[PMID 19074959OA-icon.png] ATOM: a powerful gene-based association test by combining optimally weighted markers.

[PMID 19111066OA-icon.png] Lack of association between PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in a Danish large-scale study: case-control studies and analyses of quantitative traits.

[PMID 19161620OA-icon.png] An open access database of genome-wide association results.

[PMID 19180072] The common variant in the FTO gene did not modify the effect of lifestyle changes on body weight: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

[PMID 19197348OA-icon.png] Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae.

[PMID 19224890] Aggravating effect of INSIG2 and FTO on overweight reduction in a one-year lifestyle intervention.

[PMID 19245693OA-icon.png] Studies of CTNNBL1 and FDFT1 variants and measures of obesity: analyses of quantitative traits and case-control studies in 18,014 Danes.

[PMID 19259258OA-icon.png] Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

[PMID 19360113OA-icon.png] The Role of the PGC1alpha Gly482Ser Polymorphism in Weight Gain due to Intensive Diabetes Therapy.

[PMID 19373445] Assessing the effect of interaction between an FTO variant (rs9939609) and physical activity on obesity in 15,925 Swedish and 2,511 Finnish adults.

[PMID 19375760] Effect of an FTO polymorphism on fat mass, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the French MONICA Study.

[PMID 19455305OA-icon.png] No association of multiple type 2 diabetes loci with type 1 diabetes.

[PMID 19470880] Does greater adiposity increase blood pressure and hypertension risk?: Mendelian randomization using the FTO/MC4R genotype.

[PMID 19474294OA-icon.png] Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits.

[PMID 19497595] Genetic variation of FTO and TCF7L2 in premature adrenarche.

[PMID 19526209OA-icon.png] Is the thrifty genotype hypothesis supported by evidence based on confirmed type 2 diabetes- and obesity-susceptibility variants?

[PMID 19553259OA-icon.png] Common body mass index-associated variants confer risk of extreme obesity.

[PMID 19557197OA-icon.png] NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium.

[PMID 19625203] The FTO gene modifies weight, fat mass and insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, where its role may be larger than in other phenotypes.

[PMID 19668254] Prognostic significance of FTO genotype in the development of obesity in Japanese: the J-SHIPP study.

[PMID 19717003OA-icon.png] Pediatric obesity: etiology and treatment.

[PMID 19818126OA-icon.png] Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study.

[PMID 19876004] Obesity-related polymorphisms and their associations with the ability to regulate fat oxidation in obese Europeans: the NUGENOB study.

[PMID 19876010OA-icon.png] A preliminary candidate genotype-intermediate phenotype study of satiation and gastric motor function in obesity.

[PMID 19880856OA-icon.png] Life course variations in the associations between FTO and MC4R gene variants and body size.

[PMID 19910641OA-icon.png] Obesity genotype score and cardiovascular risk in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

[PMID 19912668OA-icon.png] Design and evaluation of a treatment programme for Spanish adolescents with overweight and obesity. The EVASYON Study.

[PMID 19913856] Association of FTO gene with hyperandrogenemia and metabolic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

[PMID 19918250] A 3-year intervention with a Mediterranean diet modified the association between the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO and body weight changes.

[PMID 19924713OA-icon.png] Use of longitudinal data in genetic studies in the genome-wide association studies era: summary of Group 14.

[PMID 19931040OA-icon.png] Simultaneous genotype calling and haplotype phasing improves genotype accuracy and reduces false-positive associations for genome-wide association studies.

[PMID 20003232OA-icon.png] The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924.

[PMID 20015952OA-icon.png] European lactase persistence genotype shows evidence of association with increase in body mass index.

[PMID 20017965OA-icon.png] Identifying association under a previous linkage peak on chromosome 16 for body mass index using cross-sectional and longitudinal data of the Framingham Heart Study.

[PMID 20017978OA-icon.png] Influence of control selection in genome-wide association studies: the example of diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study.

[PMID 20017980OA-icon.png] A multilevel linear mixed model of the association between candidate genes and weight and body mass index using the Framingham longitudinal family data.

[PMID 20043853OA-icon.png] Prioritizing genes for follow-up from genome wide association studies using information on gene expression in tissues relevant for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

[PMID 20080751OA-icon.png] Long-range gene regulation links genomic type 2 diabetes and obesity risk regions to HHEX, SOX4, and IRX3.

[PMID 20127379OA-icon.png] From monogenic to polygenic obesity: recent advances.

[PMID 20144327OA-icon.png] A genomics study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. Air Force personnel.

[PMID 20351740] Placental FTO expression relates to fetal growth.

[PMID 20360686] FTO effect on energy demand versus food intake.

[PMID 20368485] Attenuation of the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on total and central body fat by physical activity in adolescents: the HELENA study.

[PMID 20379142] Association of FTO gene variants with adiposity in African-American adolescents.

[PMID 20381893OA-icon.png] The genetics of obesity: FTO leads the way.

[PMID 20404173OA-icon.png] A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly.

[PMID 20409671] Genetic associations with acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

[PMID 20418190] [Association of FTO gene polymorphisms and morbid obesity in the population of Extremadura (Spain)].

[PMID 20442772OA-icon.png] Common SNPs in FTO gene are associated with obesity related anthropometric traits in an island population from the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia.

[PMID 20509872OA-icon.png] Implication of genetic variants near SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, FTO, TCF2, KCNQ1, and WFS1 in type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

[PMID 20520848OA-icon.png] Genetic markers of adult obesity risk are associated with greater early infancy weight gain and growth.

[PMID 20598163OA-icon.png] The common rs9939609 variant of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with obesity risk in children and adolescents of Beijing, China.

[PMID 20616999OA-icon.png] Usefulness of Mendelian randomization in observational epidemiology.

[PMID 20712903OA-icon.png] Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study.

[PMID 20714329OA-icon.png] C-reactive protein levels and body mass index: elucidating direction of causation through reciprocal Mendelian randomization.

[PMID 20714331] Sleep duration and body-weight development during puberty in a Dutch children cohort.

[PMID 20725061OA-icon.png] MC4R variant is associated with BMI but not response to resistance training in young females.

[PMID 20824172OA-icon.png] Physical activity attenuates the genetic predisposition to obesity in 20,000 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

[PMID 20975729] Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and leptin in European adolescents: a possible link with energy balance control. The HELENA study.

[PMID 21063808] Combined effects of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 on obesity and BMI in Chinese Han populations.

[PMID 21076408OA-icon.png] Overexpression of Fto leads to increased food intake and results in obesity.

[PMID 21098976] The obesity related gene, FTO, interacts with APOE, and is associated with Alzheimer's disease risk: a prospective cohort study.

[PMID 21102551OA-icon.png] Analysis of FTO gene variants with obesity and glucose homeostasis measures in the multiethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort.

[PMID 21105276] Effect of FTO, SH2B1, LEP, and LEPR polymorphisms on weight gain associated with antipsychotic treatment.

[PMID 21154332] [Association of the rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene with overweight or obesity in Hazakh children].

[PMID 21179003] Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO.

[PMID 21182554] Inverse association of the obesity predisposing FTO rs9939609 genotype with alcohol consumption and risk for alcohol dependence.

[PMID 21210875] Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults.

[PMID 21283731OA-icon.png] FTO and MC4R gene variants are associated with obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

[PMID 21294771OA-icon.png] An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference.

[PMID 21317302OA-icon.png] FTO polymorphisms are associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and colorectal adenomas in African-Americans.

[PMID 21347432OA-icon.png] The obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and endometrial cancer risk in non-Hispanic white women.

[PMID 21379325OA-icon.png] Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: the complex nature of genetic association through growth and development.

[PMID 21398525OA-icon.png] FTO, type 2 diabetes, and weight gain throughout adult life: a meta-analysis of 41,504 subjects from the Scandinavian HUNT, MDC, and MPP studies.

[PMID 21458110] The fat mass and obesity gene is linked to reduced verbal fluency in overweight and obese elderly men.

[PMID 21593506OA-icon.png] Maternal and offspring adiposity-related genetic variants and gestational weight gain.

[PMID 21593801OA-icon.png] Interaction of FTO and physical activity level on adiposity in African-American and European-American adults: the ARIC study.

[PMID 21720911] ESR1, FTO, and UCP2 genes interact with bariatric surgery affecting weight loss and glycemic control in severely obese patients.

[PMID 22016090] Effects of FTO genotype on weight loss and metabolic risk factors in response to calorie restriction among Japanese women.

[PMID 22049296OA-icon.png] A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI.

[PMID 22109280OA-icon.png] Association of genetic variation in FTO with risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes with data from 96,551 East and South Asians.

[PMID 22153534] The obesity gene and colorectal cancer risk: a population study in Northern Italy.

[PMID 22179955OA-icon.png] Genetic predictors of weight loss and weight regain after intensive lifestyle modification, metformin treatment, or standard care in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

[PMID 22187296] Variants of the FTO gene in obese children and their impact on body composition and metabolism before and after lifestyle intervention.

[PMID 22189543OA-icon.png] Genetic variants in FTO associated with metabolic syndrome: a meta- and gene-based analysis.

[PMID 22265018] Association of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant (rs9939609) with dietary intake in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

[PMID 22310469] The A-allele of the common FTO gene variant rs9939609 complicates weight maintenance in severe obese patients.

[PMID 22311015] Common variant (rs9939609) in the FTO gene is associated with metabolic syndrome.

[PMID 22311283] Effects of RS9939609 gene variant in FTO gene on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors after biliopancreatic diversion surgery.

[PMID 22377712] Association between type 2 diabetes genetic susceptibility loci and visceral and subcutaneous fat area as determined by computed tomography.

[PMID 22385136] Impact of the FTO gene variation on fat oxidation and its potential influence on body weight in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

[PMID 22396042] Association between FTO gene polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from 16,277 cases and 31,153 controls.

[PMID 22457394] High dietary saturated fat intake accentuates obesity risk associated with the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in adults.

[PMID 22466342] beta2-adrenergic receptor Thr164Ile polymorphism, obesity, and diabetes: comparison with FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18 polymorphisms in more than 64,000 individuals.

[PMID 22528626OA-icon.png] Lifestyle factors modify obesity risk linked to PPARG2 and FTO variants in an elderly population: a cross-sectional analysis in the SUN Project.

[PMID 22531089OA-icon.png] Determination of the obesity-associated gene variants within the entire FTO gene by ultra-deep targeted sequencing in obese and lean children.

GWAS snp
PMID [PMID 22693455OA-icon.png]
Title Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.
Risk Allele A
P-val 1E-20
Odds Ratio 1.2500 None

[PMID 23045999] Causal inference of the effect of adiposity on bone mineral density in adults

[PMID 23091647OA-icon.png] Common Variants of FTO Are Associated with Childhood Obesity in a Cross-Sectional Study of 3,126 Urban Indian Children

[PMID 23111453] The common SNP (rs9939609) in the FTO gene modifies the association between obesity and high blood pressure in Chinese children

[PMID 23130628OA-icon.png] Associations of the FTO rs9939609 and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes are modulated by diet, being higher when adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern is low

[PMID 23134754OA-icon.png] The contribution of FTO and UCP-1 SNPs to extreme obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk in Brazilian individuals

[PMID 23136261OA-icon.png] Fat mass and obesity gene and cognitive decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

[PMID 23138007] The rs9939609 Gene Variant in FTO Modified the Metabolic Response of Weight Loss After a 3-Month Intervention With a Hypocaloric Diet

[PMID 23142383] Association of the common FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism with type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity-related traits in Vietnamese population

[PMID 23154192] The impact of breastfeeding on FTO-related BMI growth trajectories: an application to the Raine pregnancy cohort study

[PMID 23155422OA-icon.png] Prospective Analysis of the Association of a Common Variant of FTO (rs9939609) with Adiposity in Children: Results of the IDEFICS Study

[PMID 23165561] [Relation of the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO with cardiovascular risk factor and serum adipokine levels in morbid obese patients]

[PMID 23164817] The protective effect of the obesity-associated rs9939609 A variant in fat mass- and obesity-associated gene on depression

[PMID 23342142OA-icon.png] Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Obesity and Obesity-Related Outcomes in Portuguese Children.

[PMID 23431037OA-icon.png] Association Study of Fat-mass and Obesity-associated Gene and Body Mass Index in Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

[PMID 23447422] A common variant in the FTO locus is associated with waist-hip ratio in Indian adolescents

[PMID 23490278] Relation of the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO with metabolic syndrome in obese female patients

[PMID 23573268OA-icon.png] The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

[PMID 23311614OA-icon.png] Effects of smoking on the genetic risk of obesity: the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology study

[PMID 22901973] Fat mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphisms do not affect metabolic response to hormone therapy in healthy postmenopausal women

[PMID 23840863OA-icon.png] Common Variant rs9939609 in Gene FTO Confers Risk to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

[PMID 23860325] Polymorphisms in FTO and near TMEM18 associate with type 2 diabetes and predispose to younger age at diagnosis of diabetes

[PMID 23874820OA-icon.png] Evaluation of 41 Candidate Gene Variants for Obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort by Multi-Locus Stepwise Regression

[PMID 23874114OA-icon.png] Association of FTO and PPARG polymorphisms with obesity in Portuguese women

[PMID 23424664OA-icon.png] Study of 11 BMI-associated loci identified in GWAS for associations with central obesity in the Chinese children

[PMID 23950990OA-icon.png] Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

[PMID 23963770] FTO genetic variants and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of 28,394 Indians

[PMID 23990951OA-icon.png] Association of genetic variants with isolated fasting hyperglycaemia and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia in a han chinese population

[PMID 24106974] Association between fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and hip fracture susceptibility

[PMID 24167462OA-icon.png] FTO and INSIG2 Genotyping Combined with Metabolic and Anthropometric Phenotyping of Morbidly Obese Patients

[PMID 24269186] An obesity genetic risk score is associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese children

[PMID 24289790OA-icon.png] Influence of FTO variants on obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in Spanish children: a case--control multicentre study

[PMID 24622803OA-icon.png] FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial

[PMID 24622111] FTO Genotype, Physical Activity and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Swedish Men and Women

[PMID 22801903OA-icon.png] Impact of FTO genotypes on BMI and weight in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

[PMID 22836643] Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

[PMID 22865603] Evaluation of weight loss and adipocytokines levels after two hypocaloric diets with different macronutrient distribution in obese subjects with rs9939609 gene variant.

[PMID 22996130OA-icon.png] From mice to humans.

[PMID 23236985] The obesity risk gene FTO influences body mass in chronic schizophrenia but not initial antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in first-episode patients.

[PMID 23433430] The impact of obesity-related SNP on appetite and energy intake.

[PMID 23460509] Replication of genetic effects of MC4R polymorphisms on body mass index in a Korean population.

[PMID 23462794OA-icon.png] Identification of CpG-SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and differential DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets.

[PMID 23471855OA-icon.png] The genetics of childhood obesity and interaction with dietary macronutrients.

[PMID 23588626] Associations of obesity susceptibility loci with hypertension in Chinese children.

[PMID 23589710OA-icon.png] Genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in association with food preferences in healthy adults.

[PMID 23771786] Genetic variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with alcohol dependence.

[PMID 23775818] Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

[PMID 23849767OA-icon.png] Effects of FTO RS9939906 and MC4R RS17782313 on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

[PMID 24762112] Increased body mass index, elevated C-reactive protein, and short telomere length

[PMID 24819256] FTO Gene: Association to Weight Regain after Lifestyle Intervention in Overweight Children

[PMID 24911064OA-icon.png] Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Obesity and Metabolic Parameters in Han Chinese Adolescents

[PMID 25135377] Does the FTO gene interact with the socio-economic status on the obesity development among young European children? Results from the IDEFICS study

[PMID 25161014] Obesity as a causal risk factor for deep venous thrombosis. A Mendelian randomisation study

[PMID 25184161] Disease associated clinical factors and FTO polymorphism: effect on body mass in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

[PMID 25214838OA-icon.png] Polymorphism of the FTO Gene Influences Body Weight in Children with Type 1 Diabetes without Severe Obesity

[PMID 25492288] [Impact of obesity-related gene polymorphism on risk of obesity and metabolic disorder in childhood]

[PMID 25720386OA-icon.png] Dietary intake, FTO genetic variants and adiposity: a combined analysis of over 16,000 children and adolescents

[PMID 25724814OA-icon.png] The Role of FTO and Vitamin D for the Weight Loss Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Patients

[PMID 25752329OA-icon.png] Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

[PMID 25757373] Common variant within the FTO gene, rs9939609, obesity and type 2 diabetes in population of Karachi, Pakistan

[PMID 25765286] Single nucleotide polymorphism detection using gold nanoprobes and bio-microfluidic platform with embedded microlenses

[PMID 25801113] The effect of rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism on weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

[PMID 25809737] Influence of physical activity on the association between the FTO variant rs9939609 and adiposity in young adults

[PMID 25845303] The obesity related FTO gene variant associates with the risk of recurrent miscarriage

[PMID 24948161] Common variants in BDNF, FAIM2, FTO, MC4R, NEGR1, and SH2B1 show association with obesity-related variables in Spanish Roma population

[PMID 25878631OA-icon.png] Association of SNP rs9939609 in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects, rectruited from a tertiary care unit of Karachi, Pakistan

[PMID 25592819] FTO gene variants are not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in women from Southern Brazil

[PMID 25966591] [Association of polymorphic variants of FTO and MC4R genes with obesity in a Tatar population]

[PMID 25074273] Association of obesity with rs1421085 and rs9939609 polymorphisms of FTO gene

[PMID 26138810OA-icon.png] The Association of FTO SNP rs9939609 with Weight Gain at University

[PMID 25761503OA-icon.png] Dietary Fat Modifies the Effects of FTO Genotype on Changes in Insulin Sensitivity

[PMID 26243686] Implications of critical PPARγ2, ADIPOQ and FTO gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and obesity-mediated susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in an Indian population

[PMID 26271004OA-icon.png] BAC transgenic zebrafish reveal hypothalamic enhancer activity around obesity associated SNP rs9939609 within the human FTO gene

[PMID 26309651OA-icon.png] Correlation between polymorphism of FTO gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uygur people from northwest China

[PMID 26399564] FTO gene variant and risk of spontaneous abortion

[PMID 26431034OA-icon.png] FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

[PMID 26458076] FTO polymorphism, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity in Brazilian youth

[PMID 26457804] Effects of a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate Diet versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Role of a Genetic Variation in the rs9939609 FTO Gene Variant

[PMID 26555680] The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant rs9939609 predicts long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and related death independent of the traditional risk factors

[PMID 26851191OA-icon.png] Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me).

[PMID 26924971OA-icon.png] Resting-State Brain and the FTO Obesity Risk Allele: Default Mode, Sensorimotor, and Salience Network Connectivity Underlying Different Somatosensory Integration and Reward Processing between Genotypes.

[PMID 26935496] The Frequencies of Haplotypes of FTO Gene Variants and Their Association with the Distribution of Body Fat in Non-Obese Poles.

[PMID 27196486OA-icon.png] FTO rs 9939609 SNP Is Associated With Adiponectin and Leptin Levels and the Risk of Obesity in a Cohort of Romanian Children Population.

[PMID 27377581] Association of the FTO (rs9939609) and MC4R (rs17782313) gene polymorphisms with maternal body weight during pregnancy.

[PMID 27394708] A novel MC4R deletion coexisting with FTO and MC1R gene variants, causes severe early onset obesity.

[PMID 27659330] Association of a common rs9939609 variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene with obesity and metabolic phenotypes in a Taiwanese population: a replication study.

[PMID 27650258] A multianalytical approach to evaluate the association of 55 SNPs in 28 genes with obesity risk in North Indian adults.

[PMID 27768255] The obesity associated FTO gene variant and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: Evidence from the SCOPE study.

[PMID 27829468] Fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) (rs9939609) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) (rs17782313) SNP are positively associated with obesity and blood pressure in Mexican school-aged children.

[PMID 28282466OA-icon.png] Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is associated to eating disorders susceptibility and moderates the expression of psychopathological traits.

[PMID 28451524OA-icon.png] Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-analysis.

[PMID 28585683] The age of developing diabetes and FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609, rs1421085, and rs9930506).

[PMID 28712975OA-icon.png] FTO genotype and weight status among preadolescents: Assessing the mediating effects of obesogenic appetitive traits.

[PMID 28915859OA-icon.png] The (FTO) gene polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome risk in Egyptian females: a case- control study.

[PMID 29466028] Analysis of the Impact of Common Polymorphisms of the FTO and MC4R Genes with the Risk of Severe Obesity in Saudi Arabian Population.

[PMID 29520227OA-icon.png] Disruption of Accumbens and Thalamic White Matter Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography in Young Men with Genetic Risk for Obesity.

[PMID 29531329OA-icon.png] Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism modifies the relationship between body mass index and affective symptoms through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study.

[PMID 29686893OA-icon.png] Effect of Obesity-Linked FTO rs9939609 Variant on Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in Physically Active Men and Women.

[PMID 30091126] Association of type 2 diabetes susceptible genes GCKR, SLC30A8, and FTO polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus risk: a meta-analysis.

[PMID 30311592] Genetic risk score based on fat mass and obesity-associated, transmembrane protein 18 and fibronectin type III domain containing 5 polymorphisms is associated with anthropometric characteristics in South Brazilian children and adolescents.

[PMID 30537186] Genetic variation of FTO: rs1421085 T>C, rs8057044 G>A, rs9939609 T>A, and copy number (CNV) in Mexican Mayan school-aged children with obesity/overweight and with normal weight.

[PMID 30671185OA-icon.png] Evaluation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 Polymorphisms as Prognostic Biomarkers of Obesity: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study.

[PMID 30713021] The role of the genetic variants IRX3 rs3751723 and FTO rs9939609 in the obesity phenotypes of children and adolescents.

[PMID 30733965OA-icon.png] The Influence of FTO Polymorphism rs9939609 on Obesity, Some Clinical Features, and Disturbance of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Patients with Psoriasis.

[PMID 30822753] Effects of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms on binge eating in women with binge-eating disorder: The moderating influence of attachment style.

[PMID 31119882OA-icon.png] The FTO Gene and Measured Food Intake in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children Without Obesity.

[PMID 31144980] INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with higher blood pressure and triglyceride levels in Brazilian obese subjects.

[PMID 31401654] Evaluating the associations between obesity and age-related cataract: a Mendelian randomization study.

[PMID 31402168] Interaction effects of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and lifestyle factors on obesity indices in early adolescence.

[PMID 31622411OA-icon.png] The FTO genetic variants are associated with dietary intake and body mass index amongst Emirati population.

[PMID 31823921OA-icon.png] Determination of individual type 2 diabetes risk profile in the North East Indian population & its association with anthropometric parameters.

[PMID 31936053OA-icon.png] Effect of 15 BMI-Associated Polymorphisms, Reported for Europeans, across Ethnicities and Degrees of Amerindian Ancestry in Mexican Children.

[PMID 32384785OA-icon.png] Applicability of Obesity-Related SNPs and their Effect Size Measures Defined on Populations with European Ancestry for Genetic Risk Estimation among Roma.

[PMID 32730517] [Association between FTO gene rs9939609 and adiposity markers in Chilean children].

[PMID 32740722OA-icon.png] Role of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms in Escalating Obesity and Their Indirect Association With Risk of T2D in Indian Population.

[PMID 32746650] FTO gene-lifestyle interactions on serum adiponectin concentrations and central obesity in a Turkish population.

[PMID 33500652OA-icon.png] No Association Between FTO Gene Polymorphisms and Central Nervous System Tumor Susceptibility in Chinese Children.